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AM Technology

Additive Manufacturing (AM) standards established by the ASTM F42 aim to promote industry knowledge, foster research, and encourage the adoption of AM technology.

These standards definition key terminology, evaluate production process performance, assure
end-product quality, and establish procedures for the calibration of AM machines.

Vat Polymerization



Photocurable Liquid

Vat polymerization uses a liquid resin photopolymer and a light source to selectively solidify the material layer by layer. The process involves the controlled exposure of the liquid resin to light, triggering a polymerization reaction that transforms the liquid into a solid, resulting in intricately detailed and highly precise 3D printed objects.

Powder Bed Fusion



Solid (Powder) & Melt

Powder bed fusion is  where a thin layer of powdered material, such as metal or polymer, is selectively melted or sintered using a laser or electron beam, fusing the particles together to create complex and high-resolution 3D printed objects with exceptional mechanical properties.

Binder Jetting



Solid (Powder) & Binder

Binder jetting involves selectively depositing a liquid binding agent onto a powdered material bed layer by layer, effectively binding the particles together to create intricate 3D printed objects. This process allows for the production of complex geometries with a wide range of materials, making it suitable for both prototyping and large-scale production applications.

Material Jetting



Solid (Powder), Binder & Cure

Material jetting uses printheads to deposit liquid photopolymer materials in precise layers, which are subsequently cured by UV light to form solid objects. This high-resolution process enables the creation of complex, multi-material parts with fine details, making it ideal for applications that demand exceptional accuracy and aesthetic quality.

Material Extrusion



Melt & Solidification

Material extrusion, also known as Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), or Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM),  involves the deposition of thermoplastic material in a continuous filament form. The material is fed through a heated nozzle, which melts it, and is then extruded layer by layer to build a three-dimensional object. This cost-effective process is widely used for rapid prototyping and small-scale production, offering versatility in material choices and geometrical complexity.

Directed Energy
Deposition (DED)



Melt & Solidification

Directed Energy Deposition (DED) involves the precise delivery of a concentrated heat source, such as a laser or electron beam, onto a substrate while simultaneously feeding a metal powder or wire into the melt pool. This localized fusion enables the gradual buildup of complex, large-scale components with enhanced material properties, making DED suitable for repairing, coating, and manufacturing high-performance parts in industries such as aerospace and energy.

Sheet Lamination



Solid (Sheets) & Bind

Sheet lamination involves bonding thin sheets of material, typically paper or plastic (even metal), layer by layer using adhesive or heat. The layers are then cut or shaped to create the desired 3D object. This process is particularly useful for producing large-scale prototypes or low-cost models, offering simplicity and affordability in comparison to other additive manufacturing methods.

Hybrid Manufacturing



DED & Machining

Hybrid manufacturing is an advanced fabrication approach that combines additive manufacturing (AM) with traditional subtractive processes, such as machining, to leverage the strengths of both techniques. It enables the production of complex, multi-material components by integrating AM's design freedom and customization capabilities with the precision and surface finish achieved through subtractive methods, resulting in enhanced efficiency, versatility, and cost-effectiveness in manufacturing.

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